For some, biofuels is a development opportunity that could generate economic growth and create jobs in the Africa's often-underperforming rural economies. For others, biofuels is yet another example of 'foreign land-grabbing' in Africa that could undermine rural livelihoods and exacerbate food insecurity. Using two country case studies and economywide analytical methods, the seminar will explore the possible impacts of biofuels on national growth, poverty and food security in low-income African countries. Potential gender and environmental impacts will also be examined. More broadly, the seminar will provide an example of one approach to socioeconomic impact assessments.