WIDER Seminar Series

Emanoel Alfred on the effectiveness of strategic environment assessment in promoting sustainable development in Tanzania

Online seminar

Emanoel Alfred gave a presentation on 15 April 2021, as part of the Sustainable development solutions for Tanzania – strengthening research to achieve SDGs project, on his research study co-authored with Joseph Qamara. The presentation was held as a webinar, in collaboration with UONGOZI Institute

The event was chaired by Maureen Were, UNU-WIDER Research Fellow.

Abstract - Effectiveness of Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) in promoting sustainable development in Tanzania

Tanzania, like many other developing countries, does not have a long history with SEA. Before enactment of the Environmental Management Act (EMA) in 2004 and SEA Regulations in 2008, SEA was conducted mainly on voluntary basis. Nevertheless, the promulgation of the Environmental Management Act (2004) and subsequent regulations and guidelines have increased the recognition and the importance of applying SEA in the Tanzanian context.

This paper is yet another study among others that have examined SEA practice in Tanzania. The main objective of this study was to explore the extent to which SEA has been implemented in the country as well as whether its implementation is in line with generally practiced procedures/criteria that results into sustainable development. According to the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA), generally practiced procedures require SEA to be integrated, sustainability-led, stakeholder-driven, inclusive, as well as accountable and transparent. Out of 17 completed SEA, eight cases were selected and assessed by applying an analytical framework that incorporates commonly accepted SEA criteria which are cognizant with the country context in shaping SEA practice.

The study finds that there is a mix of consistence with the framework criteria from the eight assessed SEA cases. Some of the criteria have not been reported or yet to be considered in Tanzanian SEA practice. These includes key issues such as institutional integration mechanisms, dissemination of SEA results to stakeholders, as well as existence of enforcement mechanisms for compliance. The findings also indicate that there are limited linkages between the Policy, Plans, and Programmes (PPP) formulation and SEA processes. SEAs tend to enter the planning process late hence limit its ability to influence sustainability outcome of the proposed PPPs. The study also finds that until to date only policies, plans and programmes have been subjected to SEA. Bills, regulations and strategies are yet to be subjected to SEA processes.

The study recommends key interventions in terms of regulatory, institutional or administrative, as well as capacity needs to improve SEA practice in Tanzania. These includes, among others, the establishment of the enforcement mechanisms for conducting SEA through performance audit to be conducted by the office of CAG; introduction of registered SEA experts with practicing  SEA certificates that are renewed annually; the need for allocating funds to MDAs to implement SEA; the need for Government circular directing the responsible authorities to undertake SEA; conducting awareness and education programmes on SEA to all MDAs and LGAs; as well as capacity development for internal SEA experts to review, monitor and conduct SEA effectively. SEA is still developing in Tanzania, but addressing these issues in affirmative, the country will have a unique opportunity to advance SEA practice as well as promote environmental management and sustainable development in the region.

About the speaker

Mr. Emanoel Alfred is a development practitioner with over 5 years’ experience in managing and coordinating developmental projects as well as facilitating policy analysis on leadership for sustainable development. Mr Alfred is currently working with UONGOZI Institute as a Policy Analyst and is coordinating the programme on leadership development and practice in Africa. He has extensive expertise in conceptualizing, planning, executing, and coordinating both policy and research projects.

He has successfully implemented several programme and projects from diverse areas including Strategic Environment Assessment; Environmental Impact Assessment; Resettlement Action Plan; socio-economic analysis studies; renewable energy; water resource management; leadership and sustainable development; as well as coordinating both national and international policy forums. Mr Alfred has worked in different capacity with various organizations such as Global Water Partnership Tanzania, Stockholm Environment Institute-Africa Centre, Network for Water and Sanitation (NETWAS), Miombo Environmental Consulting Co, Lahmeyer Tanzania Limited, and DON Consult Limited. Mr. Emanoel is holding a Master Degree in Sustainable Development Planning and Management from Faculty of Economic Science and Management, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, Bachelor Degree of Laws (LL.B Hons) from the University of Dar es Salaam, Post Graduate Diploma in Legal Practicing from Law School of Tanzania, as well as Post Graduate Diploma in Leadership from Aalto University Executive Education, Finland.