ETD – Economic Transformation Database
Open and free to use, the GGDC/UNU-WIDER Economic Transformation Database (ETD) provides comprehensive, long-term, and internationally comparable sectoral data on employment and productivity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
The ETD covers:
- measures of economic growth and labour inputs for 51 economies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America;
- 12 sectors of the total economy;
- time series with annual data from 1990 until 2018;
- data on value added, price deflators, and persons employed.
The ETD is the successor of the GGDC 10-sector database developed by the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC) of the University of Groningen. The ETD project has been supported by UNU-WIDER financially and through joint research work.
The ETD is also accessible through GGDC's webpages.
On 15 July 2021 we updated the ETD. Please consult the change log for an overview of the changes.
|ETD release 2021.xlsx||ETD release 2021.dta||ETD release 2021.rds|
Attribution requirement: When using the data for whatever purpose, please make the following reference: ‘de Vries, Gaaitzen, Linda Arfelt, Dorothea Drees, Mareike Godemann, Calumn Hamilton, Bente Jessen-Thiesen, Ahmet Ihsan Kaya, Hagen Kruse, Emmanuel Mensah, and Pieter Woltjer (2021). The Economic Transformation Database (ETD): content, sources, and methods. WIDER Technical Note 2/2021. https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/WTN/2021-2.'
License: The GGDC/UNU-WIDER Economic Transformation Database is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Please contact the ETD team at GGDC regarding any questions on the database. We welcome comments from users of the dataset.
The database may be updated and notifications and details about the updates will be given on the database files. Some minor corrections can be done without a change in the database version.
A technical note and working paper describing the construction, sources and methods of the ETD can be found under Documentation below.
Country and variable coverage
|Developing Asia (14)||Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam|
|Advanced Asia (6)||Hong Kong (China), Israel, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Singapore, Chinese Taipei|
|Latin America (9)||Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru|
|Middle East and North Africa (4)||Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey|
|Sub-Saharan Africa (18)||Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia|
|Time period (annual data)||1990–2018|
Gross value added at constant (2015) prices (national currency in millions)
Gross value added at current prices (national currency in millions)
Persons employed (in thousands)
|Principal sources||National accounts; population censuses; labour force surveys; business surveys|
|Notes||Asian countries are grouped into developing Asia based on the classification by the IMF (2020)|
|ISIC Rev. 4 code||Brief description|
|D + E||Utilities|
|G + I||Trade services|
|J + M + N||Business services|
|O + P + Q||Government services|
|R + S + T + U||Other services|
WIDER Technical Note 2/2021: The Economic Transformation Database (ETD): content, sources, and methods | Download
The technical note describes in detail the sources and methods used in the construction of the GGDC/UNU-WIDER Economic Transformation Database on a country-by-country basis.
WIDER Working Paper 28/2021: A manufacturing renaissance? Industrialization trends in the developing world | Download
Using sectoral data from the GGDC/UNU-WIDER Economic Transformation Database, the paper examines industrialization trends in selected developing economies in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America.