Search
Filter by...
Reset all
Type
Keywords
Year
Topic
Project
Country
Region
Methodology

Publications (148)

– Impacts on economic development
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Over the past 20 years, researchers have been looking at the economic lifecycle of individuals around the world using National Transfer Accounts (NTA) data. The focus of this research has been on understanding how societies produce, consume, share, and save resources across generations, how these...

– Socioeconomic class and poverty in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

South Africa is often cited as the most unequal economy in the world. Its experience of having to overcome both colonialism and apartheid makes it unique from the vantage of studies on socioeconomic class, economic mobility, and poverty — with household characteristics like race, gender,...

– The case of value-added tax in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

In a democratic system, taxation is a critical part of the social contract between the state and its citizens. The tax system can be used to help address the unacceptably high levels of poverty, inequality, and unemployment in South Africa. An increase in VAT from 14% to 15% caused a modest...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The World Bank reports that the world loses US$160 trillion in human capital wealth due to gender wage inequality every year. Inequality is not just an issue of fairness. It is also undesirable because it hampers poverty reduction strategies and leads to suboptimal allocation of resources. In...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Regional integration is making steady progress in Southern Africa, leading to the development of regional value chains (RVCs) that could strengthen the competitiveness of the region. Importantly, the development of RVCs also creates pressure for further integration. While integration brings major...

– Addressing the lack of data and observing the structure of the economy
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

With the recent democratic elections, Myanmar has entered a new development phase. To support this process there is amongst others a need for sound economic policies that have an economy-wide perspective. To enable such policies, appropriate analytical methods and the relevant underlying data,...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Social protection systems in Africa are still in their infancy. As countries develop their systems, it is crucial to look at how existing tax-benefit programmes affect poverty and inequality and how countries can learn from each other’s systems.​​ Microsimulation models can be used to...

– Are non-farm jobs the driver or a brake?
Chris Elbers, Peter Lanjouw - UNU-WIDER, 2019

The increasing proportion of non-agricultural work in rural India has commonly been associated with widening income inequality. However, our simulations from the village of Palanpur in the north suggest that without this diversification inequality might well have increased even more. From...

– The case of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Much discussion of climate change in the developing world focuses on if, when, and to what extent developing countries should be subject to any global attempts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Little work has been done on the likely economic impacts resulting from the interplay of climate change...

– Correcting the data on top incomes in China
Qinghai Li, Shi Li, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

China has experienced fast economic growth over the last forty years. The number of Chinese billionaires has grown exceptionally fast and their wealth has increased enormously. At the same time, official statistics report decreasing inequality over the most recent decade. However, correcting data...

– A tax-benefit microsimulation
Remmy Kampamba, Luca Pellerano, Charles Banda, Obbie Musama - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

In an attempt to reduce poverty and vulnerability in a sustainable and cost-effective way, in 2003 the Zambian Government introduced a social cash transfer (SCT) scheme. However, a recent review of Zambia’s social assistance system revealed that this scheme provided insufficient coverage to...

Björn Gustafsson, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

From an international perspective, growth in average wages has been very impressive in urban China during recent decades. Average wages were about ten times as high in 2013 as in 1988. But how has wage inequality evolved during this period? Wage inequality increased rapidly in urban China...

– New gas finds, investments, and their implications in Mozambique
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Large flows of foreign investments have not been translated into a boom for the Mozambican economy. On the contrary, they have foreshadowed a sustained period of deep economic difficulty for the country. What is the story behind this phenomenon and what are its implications? Mozambique has...

– Will local content do the trick?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Extractives and interlinked industries are expecting a boom in Mozambique. This could be good news for the country’s economy, in theory. But can extractives really work as a driver to diversify the Mozambican economy? It is unlikely that the extractives sector can any time soon be...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

As with many other developed and emerging economies, in recent decades Mexico has experienced a long-term decline in the labour income share. The decline is observed in both the share of wages in value added and in more comprehensive measures that include the labour income of the self-employed....

– Lessons from international experience
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Mozambique has seen a significant expansion of interest and investment in its extractive industries. New gas finds in the past ten years have led to expectations that these industries will contribute very significantly to the country’s future economic development and its long-term...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change is one of the most complex and urgent of global issues due to its potential impacts and the policies and measures needed to address those impacts. Both are potential game changers for the Earth’s biosphere, ways of life, and economic development into the twenty-first century...

– How inflated expectations of oil revenues led to a deterioration in macroeconomic management
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Prior to the discovery of oil, Ghana was one of the stars of the ‘Africa rising’ story, with an established track record of macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. When oil was discovered, there were great hopes that Ghana would avoid the ‘resource curse’. Initial...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Driven by rapid growth in mining and related infrastructure investment, exports of machinery and equipment from South Africa to other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries more than quadrupled from 2003 to 2013. Growth has, however, since slowed due to a more subdued commodity...

– Success and failure in the extractive sector
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

A central difficulty for extractive activity is that benefits accrue at the national level but disruptions are highly localized. Companies recognise that these imbalances need to be addressed and adopt active programmes to improve local benefits. These programmes have had mixed past success,...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Transport and logistical efficiencies are critical factors in the competitiveness of regional value producers. The relatively high cost of regional transport in Southern Africa has impacted suppliers’ cost-competitiveness. Reducing the cost of bringing products into main markets is one way...

Research Brief pdf
– The importance of mitigating emissions
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

More intense climate changes are expected in South Africa if GHG emissions are not constrained. Increased GHG emissions are likely to result in increases in average annual surface temperatures and higher evaporation rates. Average precipitation levels across South Africa are...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

The demand for irrigation is likely to increase in South Africa as a result of increased temperatures and evaporation rates. Rain-fed agricultural crops are likely to experience a decline in average annual yields. This is particularly the case for maize and wheat, which are staple foods...

Research Brief pdf
– The animal-feed-to-poultry value chain
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

15-20% of local demand for poultry in South Africa is met by imports Evidence from Zambia suggests that capital investments in the value chain can increase local production Increased demand due to growing urban populations poses critical challenges for local industrialization in...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change risks for run-off and irrigation demand vary significantly across South Africa, with some regions expected to experience increased drying and others flooding Smaller impacts on water resources by 2050 are expected if global emissions are mitigated Even under strong...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Supermarkets are potential partners in regional industrial development and should be considered in future policy making While the growth of supermarkets in the region has improved competitive pricing and accessibility to a broader range of products and services, it has also imposed...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

While South Africa’s democratic transition precipitated a period of growth, this growth was not inclusive and both poverty and inequality remain high A significant trend in the South African labour market has been the rising share of workers in the public sector High levels of...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

What types of businesses benefit or suffer due to geographic clustering? Data available from Cambodia on competition and spillovers—at both village- and commune-level—is useful to answer a number of questions about the effects of clustering and the possible benefits or drawbacks of...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

​​The clustering of industries in specific areas has improved industrial productivity in a number of countries. Since the mid-1990s in Tunisia, concerted policies have been introduced which focus on improving the efficiency of the labour force, and the productivity of firms by creating clusters...

Research Brief pdf
– Determining the impact of rising food prices
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Evidence obtained from detailed household surveys in Mozambique during the 2008-09 food price shock reveals just how pronounced the impact of food price inflation can be on children’s overall nutrition status. Moderate and severe underweight prevalence in children in Mozambique is...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa, poor in natural resources, and with low levels of human development. Its economy remains agricultural and focused on food crops and cotton production. Over the last twenty years it has experienced average annual growth of around 2%. However...

Research Brief pdf
– How much are we willing to allow top earners to squeeze the poor?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The majority of income inequality occurs at the tails of the income distribution  The Gini coefficient does not provide a representative measure of income inequality When the top 10% of income earners expand their share of national income it often appears to be to the detriment...

Research Brief pdf
– Income inequality in former British African colonies
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The presence of European colonial powers in Africa has left a long-lasting legacy that has severely impacted their development trajectories. But what are the lingering effects of colonization on economic performance, in particular with regard to inequality? While clear information on many...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The Egyptian food system has been affected by both global food markets and domestic factors. During the recent global food price crisis, an estimated 30–40 percent of the price fluctuations in the global food market were transmitted to Egypt’s food market. Domestically, government...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The recent food price crisis and the responses of the policy makers in developing countries provide an unprecedented opportunity to analyse the policy processes in these countries. Policy responses differed depending on the nature and magnitude of the roles of various actors, political...

Research Brief pdf
– IMF financing versus debt-restructuring
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

​In the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, debt crises have plagued low-, middle-, and high-income countries at various times. Indebted countries have generally addressed balance of payments crises either by (a) obtaining International Monetary Fund (IMF) emergency financing; or (b)...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Global food price hikes during 2007-08 resulted in a sharp rise in staple food prices in Bangladesh, which in turn led to a significant rise in the number of households falling below the poverty line. On the political front, Bangladesh was run by an unelected and undemocratic ‘civil’...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The global food crisis in 2007–08 raised concerns everywhere, including in China. However, despite China’s highly-integrated domestic and international markets for many agricultural commodities, the effect of the crisis in China was only moderate. The government’s responses and...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The impact of the 2007–08 food price crisis in Brazil was relatively subdued compared with what took place in many other developing countries. Because the crisis potentially undermined both social inclusion and price stability, both important priorities in Brazil, the absence of any great...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Aid projects that specifically target women tend be better at increasing gender equality than those that mainstream gender. The gender gap can be narrowed through public works that focus on providing decent employment for women as well as training and micro-finance for...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Economic growth has had a negative effect on unemployment and poverty reduction in Africa. The transition from low- to middle income requires within sector increases in productivity and a shift of labour resources from low productivity agriculture to high productivity...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Social insurance has not succeeded in reducing fiscal deficits and expanding coverage to more beneficiaries in Latin America Social assistance has had a greater impact on poverty and inequality than social insurance In lower-middle-income countries, social assistance programmes have...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

During the 1990s, inequality in Ecuador increased because of a natural disaster and deep economic and financial crisis, as well as the impact of liberalization of the trade and financial sectors on labour markets Falling income equality in Ecuador during the 2000s partly coincides with...

Research Brief
– An Empirical Analysis
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Left-of-centre governments emphasized fiscally-prudent but more equitable macroeconomic, tax, social expenditure and labour policies A drop in the premium paid to skilled workers following a rapid expansion of secondary education decreased wage inequality Addressing continued...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Integration of Latin America into the international economy over the past quarter century has led to faster export growth, but not to faster GDP or productivity growth Contrary to mainstream analysis, under the current market reforms countries have underperformed as compared to the prior...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

After tax reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, income inequality increased in many Latin American countries The tax reforms of the 2000s have been more equalizing in terms of income inequality: Argentina, Honduras and Nicaragua have seen the most redistribution of income Taxation remains...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Fragile and conflict-affected states, like Sierra Leone, can maintain a strong public financial management structure if they are able to find foreign support for administrative capacity and sufficient domestic political and executive support. PFM legal framework,...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Civic education programmes can have meaningful and relatively long-lasting effects in terms of increasing political information, feelings of empowerment, and mobilizing individuals to engage in political participation. Civic education programmes are much less likely to...

Displaying 48 of 148 results.