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Publications (183)

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change is one of the most complex and urgent of global issues due to its potential impacts and the policies and measures needed to address those impacts. Both are potential game changers for the Earth’s biosphere, ways of life, and economic development into the twenty-first century...

– How inflated expectations of oil revenues led to a deterioration in macroeconomic management
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Prior to the discovery of oil, Ghana was one of the stars of the ‘Africa rising’ story, with an established track record of macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. When oil was discovered, there were great hopes that Ghana would avoid the ‘resource curse’. Initial...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Driven by rapid growth in mining and related infrastructure investment, exports of machinery and equipment from South Africa to other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries more than quadrupled from 2003 to 2013. Growth has, however, since slowed due to a more subdued commodity...

– Success and failure in the extractive sector
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

A central difficulty for extractive activity is that benefits accrue at the national level but disruptions are highly localized. Companies recognise that these imbalances need to be addressed and adopt active programmes to improve local benefits. These programmes have had mixed past success,...

Ricardo Santos, Vincenzo Salvucci - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon involving things other than consumption — such as access to and quality of health and education, housing, possession of durable goods, freedom, and many other factors. The consumption and multidimensional poverty approaches are complementary: it is...

Rachel M. Gisselquist - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Development assistance to fragile states and conflict-affected areas is a core component of peacebuilding. It includes support for the restoration of core government functions, delivery of basic services, the rule of law, and economic revitalization. Yet, while aid has been among the largest...

– Significant progress but challenges remain
Ricardo Santos, Vincenzo Salvucci - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

In 1990, Mozambique was one of the poorest countries in the world, with poverty estimated to reach 80% of the total population. At that stage, a Millennium Development Goal of reducing this proportion by half posed a very difficult target to meet. After the ‘war of destabilization’ in...

Rachel M. Gisselquist, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Experimental studies using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a powerful tool in policy analysis. They have been sometimes hailed as the best means of identifying ‘what works’ in development policy. However, it would be unwise to rely solely on findings from RCTs to guide policy...

– The challenge of industrialization
Carol Newman, John Page, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

International goals and Africa’s aspirations The international community has a new set of development goals, and they reflect Africa’s aspirations much more closely than the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they replaced. Their single most important contribution is to recognize...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Transport and logistical efficiencies are critical factors in the competitiveness of regional value producers. The relatively high cost of regional transport in Southern Africa has impacted suppliers’ cost-competitiveness. Reducing the cost of bringing products into main markets is one way...

Research Brief pdf
– The importance of mitigating emissions
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

More intense climate changes are expected in South Africa if GHG emissions are not constrained. Increased GHG emissions are likely to result in increases in average annual surface temperatures and higher evaporation rates. Average precipitation levels across South Africa are...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

 The demand for irrigation is likely to increase in South Africa as a result of increased temperatures and evaporation rates. Rain-fed agricultural crops are likely to experience a decline in average annual yields. This is particularly the case for maize and wheat, which are staple...

Research Brief pdf
– The animal-feed-to-poultry value chain
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

15-20% of local demand for poultry in South Africa is met by imports Evidence from Zambia suggests that capital investments in the value chain can increase local production Increased demand due to growing urban populations poses critical challenges for local industrialization in...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change risks for run-off and irrigation demand vary significantly across South Africa, with some regions expected to experience increased drying and others flooding Smaller impacts on water resources by 2050 are expected if global emissions are mitigated Even under strong...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Supermarkets are potential partners in regional industrial development and should be considered in future policy making While the growth of supermarkets in the region has improved competitive pricing and accessibility to a broader range of products and services, it has also imposed...

– How to support effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions for sustainable development?
Rachel M. Gisselquist, Danielle Resnick - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Aiding government effectiveness in developing countries has been a priority issue for the international donor community since the 1990s. With the Paris Declaration in 1994, donors further committed to aiding government effectiveness in a manner consistent with local ownership and harmonization...

– Creating good jobs in Africa
Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

The prevailing narrative about growth and development in Africa has shifted dramatically. During the1980s and 90s pessimism abounded. Today, a more optimistic narrative of development in the region largely reigns. However challenges still remain. In particular structural transformation has been...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

While South Africa’s democratic transition precipitated a period of growth, this growth was not inclusive and both poverty and inequality remain high A significant trend in the South African labour market has been the rising share of workers in the public sector High levels of...

– Evidence from a 16 country study
Channing Arndt, Andy McKay, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

While the recovery and acceleration of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since about 1995 has been widely recognized, much less is known about the extent to which this growth has been translated into improvements in welfare for the population in general and poverty reduction in...

Tony Addison, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The design and implementation of effective aid policy requires a deeper understanding of the impact of aid and the overall environment in which development aid operates. This policy brief addresses four areas which are key to understanding how aid works: the relationship between aid and economic...

Per Pinstrup-Andersen - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

This policy brief explains how developing country governments responded to increasing food price volatility - and explains why they responded as they did. Although lip service was paid to structural changes in the food systems, there is few signs that the food crisis led to enduring shifts in...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

In response to the food price hike during 2007-08 the government of Bangladesh undertook a number of initiatives to promote agricultural development, including: a subsidy on fertilizer endowment funds for agricultural research and development cash...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

China’s response to the food price crisis of 2007-08 was rapid, decisive, and effective Policy response focused on stabilizing domestic food prices and ensuring national food security China’s domestic grain price increased only moderately during the crisis While...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Despite the potential of the food price crisis to undermine social inclusion—an important priority in Brazil—the government’s reaction was fairly muted Rising food prices did reduce household welfare, hitting the poorest the hardest. However the compensating effect...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

In response to the food crisis of 2007-08 the Egyptian government rapidly took steps to make sure bread continued to be available and made changes to trade policy in order to control its price. The government succeeded in lessening the impact of the food crisis on the poor, but this...

Research Brief pdf
– How much are we willing to allow top earners to squeeze the poor?
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The majority of income inequality occurs at the tails of the income distribution  The Gini coefficient does not provide a representative measure of income inequality When the top 10% of income earners expand their share of national income it often appears to be to the...

Research Brief pdf
– Determining the impact of rising food prices
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Moderate and severe underweight prevalence in children in Mozambique is significantly influenced by food price inflation  High food price inflation during the food price shock of 2008-09 may be responsible for an additional 39,000 moderately underweight and 24,000 severely...

Research Brief pdf
– growth without poverty reduction
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Burkina Faso has experienced consistent aggregate growth over the past two decades, but that growth has not been transformed into significant poverty reduction Poverty is considerably higher in rural than urban areas The main causes of poverty are the lack of rural productivity...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

There is significant evidence of productivity spillovers associated with the clustering of informal firms in Cambodia Formal and manufacturing firms, however, do not experience the advantages of agglomeration economies due to pressure from direct competitors Benefits derived...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Tunisian firms often choose to locate near each other in Central Business Districts (CBDs) in coastal areas where there is high local demand More than 83% of industrial firms are located on the country’s coast, with nearly 40% of these located in either the Tunis governorate or...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The food price policy process is influenced by a number of country-specific factors: the political system and its degrees of openness socioeconomic environments and historical factors the nature of the country’s institutions Countries...

Research Brief pdf
– IMF financing versus debt-restructuring
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

The IMF has generally met its counter-cyclical lending objectives. The IMF has been improving in terms of providing adequate lending facilities and focusing conditionality on macro-relevant areas. In contrast to the IMF, debt-restructuring practices have not improved over time...

Research Brief pdf
– Income inequality in former British African colonies
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

All British African colonies displayed a high level of income inequality, roughly double that of the United Kingdom at the time of independence. Post-Second World War policy changes by the United Kingdom focused on the social and economic development of colonies; in many cases these...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2015 - Helsinki, Finland

Aid projects that specifically target women tend be better at increasing gender equality than those that mainstream gender. The gender gap can be narrowed through public works that focus on providing decent employment for women as well as training and micro-finance for...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Economic growth has had a negative effect on unemployment and poverty reduction in Africa. The transition from low- to middle income requires within sector increases in productivity and a shift of labour resources from low productivity agriculture to high productivity...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Social insurance has not succeeded in reducing fiscal deficits and expanding coverage to more beneficiaries in Latin America Social assistance has had a greater impact on poverty and inequality than social insurance In lower-middle-income countries, social assistance programmes have...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

During the 1990s, inequality in Ecuador increased because of a natural disaster and deep economic and financial crisis, as well as the impact of liberalization of the trade and financial sectors on labour markets Falling income equality in Ecuador during the 2000s partly coincides with...

Research Brief
– An Empirical Analysis
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Left-of-centre governments emphasized fiscally-prudent but more equitable macroeconomic, tax, social expenditure and labour policies A drop in the premium paid to skilled workers following a rapid expansion of secondary education decreased wage inequality Addressing continued...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Integration of Latin America into the international economy over the past quarter century has led to faster export growth, but not to faster GDP or productivity growth Contrary to mainstream analysis, under the current market reforms countries have underperformed as compared to the prior...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

After tax reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, income inequality increased in many Latin American countries The tax reforms of the 2000s have been more equalizing in terms of income inequality: Argentina, Honduras and Nicaragua have seen the most redistribution of income Taxation remains...

Ravi Kanbur, Jukka Pirttilä - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

This policy brief examines the impact behavioral economics could have on development policy. In the last two decades, questioning of the economics textbook model of individual choice behavior has accelerated. It has become clear that the cost of assuming 100 per cent rationality has exceeded the...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Fragile and conflict-affected states, like Sierra Leone, can maintain a strong public financial management structure if they are able to find foreign support for administrative capacity and sufficient domestic political and executive support. PFM legal framework,...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Civic education programmes can have meaningful and relatively long-lasting effects in terms of increasing political information, feelings of empowerment, and mobilizing individuals to engage in political participation. Civic education programmes are much less likely to...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

In addition to large class sizes, peer effects, such as overage-for-grade and late-starting pupils, are challenges for the successful development of education sectors in East Africa; there is a comparative lack of research on the impact of peer effects. Household surveys...

– Policy Changes and Lessons
Giovanni Andrea Cornia - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

This policy brief examines the determinants of the recent decline of income inequality in Latin America. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the region has enhanced its growth performance, reduced social polarization, and improved macroeconomic stability. The most striking change...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

The five Paris principles of effective aid were only nominally successfully implemented in the state-building process of South Sudan. While the importance of the first principle, ownership, was highlighted in development plans in Southern Sudan, capacity limitations...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

The National Solidarity Programme (NSP) serves as a success story that has improved many Afghan lives and laid the groundwork for potential longer-term development. The NSP had a positive effect on access to drinking water and electricity, acceptance of democratic processes...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2014 - Helsinki, Finland

Each dollar of aid per year provides 0.17 people with access to water or sanitation. This amounts to a cost of US$5.88 per person. Due to economies of scale, countries with large populations benefit more from aid to the water and sanitation sectors. Institutional...

Displaying 48 of 183 results.