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Publications (267)

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Even though poverty and inequality have been of overriding concern in South Africa’s development policies and programmes since its democratization in 1994, measures of poverty, inequality, and related phenomena in the country do not show a clear improvement. In some important respects, they...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

The two primary features of a job are its wage and how long it lasts. Today, there is an extensive literature on wages in the developing world thanks to the expansion of national household survey data. However, far less work has been conducted on job duration in these countries, primarily due to...

– Natural gas as a key
UNU-WIDER - , 2020

Plastics are universal and integrated into different sectors of the economy. Industrial policy requires countries to look at moving up the value chain and producing progressively more sophisticated products to contribute to improved economic development. The input materials that are used for...

– Blueprint, experiences and outcomes
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

East Asia’s successful experience in accelerating the process of industrial development with SEZs paved way for the use of SEZs as policy instruments in Africa. In southern Africa, Zambia and South Africa instituted SEZs in legal and institutional frameworks in the 2000s as mechanisms for...

– Promises and pitfalls of tradable services in Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

There is growing recognition around the world that tradable services can play a valuable role in economic development. Africa is no exception, with the need for multiple routes to growth, particularly vis-à-vis the COVID-19 pandemic. Tradable services — business activities that...

– The distribution of household wealth in South Africa
Aroop Chatterjee, Léo Czajka, Amory Gethin - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

South Africa is, by most contemporary measures, the most unequal country in the world. Yet, relatively little attention has been given to country’s wealth inequality. It is crucial to accurately measure the concentration of wealth inequality over time, identify the root causes of the...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Monetary policy affects the real economy through various channels, including the interest rate, exchange rate, credit, and asset price channels. The credit channel has recently received considerable attention. Small firms are more sensitive to changes in interest rates. Small firms which...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Regional integration in Africa has potential for increasing regional trade and contribute towards industrialization and economic development. Agro-processing trade offers numerous opportunities for southern Africa countries and is a potential area of business to reduce poverty in the region....

– How can natural resources support inclusive growth in Africa
John Page, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

For a growing number of countries in Africa the discovery of natural resources is a great opportunity, but one accompanied by considerable risks. There is an extensive literature linking natural resource dependence to poor economic performance. One cause is that resource-abundant economies tend...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

It is important to understand how working conditions faced by workers in Vietnamese SMEs affect levels of compensation. This is salient given the scope of SMEs in Vietnam — they contribute to approximately 45% of the country’s GDP and 60% of its employment. There are no clearly...

– SMEs and access to credit
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

During the last three decades Vietnam has undergone a considerable economic transformation. However, little research has considered the role that financial reform has played in the development of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). A focus on the financing of SMEs is of particular...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Much work has been done on inequality in South Africa, but to date the literature that assesses the dynamic response of income or wealth distribution to economic policy actions is almost non-existent. This information gap is caused by data shortcomings that make it difficult to provide accurate...

– What kind of firms employ young people in South Africa?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

According to South Africa’s National Development Plan Vision 2030, serious action needs to be taken to reduce poverty and encourage economic growth. One of the main challenges involves reducing the unemployment rates in South Africa, particularly among youth. In South Africa, young...

– The impact on equality in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

The impact of medical deductions and medical credits on income inequality is a subject of discussion in South Africa, as well as in many other countries, raising critical questions about the fairness of the medical tax system and the impact on affordability for the poor. An in-depth analysis of...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

The transformation of Asia’s education and health systems over the last 50 years has been breathtaking and unprecedented in human history. There are some central features of this transformation that clearly stand out. Over the last 50 years, all Asian countries have been able to...

Rachel M. Gisselquist, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Building knowledge about migration governance and policy in the Global South is a priority for research and policy. Migration is a defining feature of our time and one closely linked with processes of economic and political development. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target 10.7 prioritizes...

– Transnational growth corridors as a solution
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Comprehensive harmonization is crucial to eliminate inefficiencies that hamper free movement of goods and services in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. Territorial collaboration between metropolitan clusters and rural areas connected by transport corridors is a potential...

– What are the challenges?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Diversifying the agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa is important for the combat against poverty and climate change. In Malawi there are plans for legalizing the cultivation of industrial hemp, which would at best bring possibilities for Malawi and South Africa to complement each other...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Special economic zones (SEZ) in Africa are generally regarded as underperforming relative to their peers in the rest of the world. To explain this underperformance and to support success in the future it is important to analyse the key features and what is lacking in the design of African special...

– Can foreign direct investment help South Africa increase the complexity of its exports?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Since the end of apartheid, South Africa’s economic challenges have disrupted efforts to establish a society of inclusive growth and prosperity. Understanding how South Africa can break the pattern of sluggish growth, high unemployment, inequality and poverty is a pressing policy issue....

– A pathway to effective tax collection in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Many governments, particularly those in developing countries, have set an objective to improve tax revenue mobilization to offer more and better public services to their citizens. To develop effective revenue-raising strategies it is necessary to determine whether there is a tax revenue gap and...

Johannes Hermanus Kemp, Hylton Hollander - , 2020

Much of the research on the impact of fiscal policy shocks on macroeconomic outcomes (e.g., fiscal multipliers) uses reduced-form modelling approaches such as vector auto-regressions to obtain empirical results. In a recent study1, we used this approach to estimate fiscal multipliers for South...

Johannes Hermanus Kemp, Hylton Hollander - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, FInland

Despite the frequent use of fiscal policy for stabilization purposes, there remains significant uncertainty regarding the impact of fiscal policy decisions on macroeconomic outcomes. This impact is quantified by calculating fiscal multipliers. A fiscal multiplier measures the impact of government...

– A snapshot of Mozambique in 2015–2018
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

After decades of war and conflict, Mozambique and its economy experienced a strong recovery from the 1990s into the 2000s. However, between 2015 and 2018 multiple crises unfolded in Mozambique — the economic crisis and the scandal of hidden debt, severe weather shocks, and increasing...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Given the weight of micro, small, and medium size enterprises (MSMEs) in total employment in Vietnam, and because the long-awaited development process is occurring through productivity gains, there is value in understanding the mechanisms that foster or limit their expansion. In particular there...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Over the last 50 years, Asia has emerged as the most important laboratory for understanding the roots of state effectiveness and the consequences of different modes of state action for delivering enhanced wellbeing. While in the mid-twentieth century social science researchers were focused on...

– Five key issues and solutions
Jukka Pirttilä, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Taxation, and public sector matters more generally, are high on the agenda for the international development community. This is clearly reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG17 stipulates the need for improving domestic resource mobilization directly, and most of the other...

– The framing of social protection policies in Tanzania
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Until 2010s, social protection was not high on the political agenda in Tanzania. Yet in 2012, the government approved the implementation of a nationwide conditional cash transfer programme. What led the government to commit to a policy area that was otherwise of low priority? The...

– Example from Malawi
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Social assistance programmes have proliferated across Africa alongside redemocratization — the return of multi-party systems with regular, competitive elections. Competitive elections in Africa can provide an incentive to welfare policy reform because they push presidential candidates and...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

The Rwandan government introduced the Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme (VUP) with donor support in 2008. The VUP comprises public works, unconditional direct support for those unable to work, and a financial services component that promotes financial literacy and provides credit. This new elite...

– Experience over the last fifty years
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

Asia has achieved remarkable economic growth and seen hundreds of millions of citizens rise out of poverty since the mid-1960s. Constructing and analysing the factors behind continent’s poverty and inequality over the last fifty years helps gain important insights for further reducing...

John Rand, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

The structural changes of the economy have been a significant contributor to Vietnam’s impressive growth over the past 30 years. Labour has moved rapidly from agriculture into manufacturing, with important improvements in livelihoods as a result. The burgeoning private sector played a key...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2020 - Helsinki, Finland

One common characteristic of the fast-growing countries with good labour market outcomes — Korea, China, Vietnam — was at the beginning of their growth spurt their initially equal household income level, which was the result of renewed distribution of income. The most salient...

– Reducing the impact of global oil prices
Alfred Moyo - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Analysis of World Bank data ranging from 1990–2017 indicates that increases in global oil prices would have negative effects on the economic growth of SADC, especially Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, and Mauritius. Given the high reliance of Southern African countries on crude oil imports,...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The success of an economy’s manufacturing sector is often critical to economic growth and development. As a major contributor to exports, site of innovation, adopter of international best practices, and engine of job creation, an internationally competitive manufacturing sector often drives...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Service exports are the fastest growing portion of world trade and now account for nearly a quarter of global exports. Tradable services contribute to economic growth and development by bolstering industrial capabilities, facilitating productivity growth and investment, and contributing directly...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The design and implementation of industrial policy should be closely linked to spatial considerations. Firm output and productivity are often location-specific, with factors such as the availability of physical infrastructure, proximity to sources for raw materials, and the potential for adopting...

– Actors, institutions and dynamics
Sam Hickey, Tom Lavers, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa, Jeremy Seekings - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Since the mid-1990s, there has been in Africa something of a ‘quiet revolution’ in poverty reduction strategies with the proliferation of social assistance programmes that entail cash transfers to the poor. The past two decades have also been characterized by a series of important...

Carlos Gradín, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

There is an increasing interest in the analysis of economic inequalities in least developed countries. This is not only the result of a general social preference for equality, but also the consequence of a growing sense that highly unequal societies may distort the functioning of a country...

– Key findings from an extensive survey
Sam Jones, Ricardo Santos, Gimelgo Xirinda - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

This brief summarizes the findings and implications of a survey of the school-to-work transition by Mozambican university students. No research of this kind had previously been conducted. Over the course of a year and a half, university graduates were monitored in their transition to the labour...

– Poverty and inequality in Ghana
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Ghana has recently implemented a policy to support public secondary education. A microsimulation analysis helps reveal the impacts of the reform on poverty and inequality and identifies options to finance it without burdening poor households. A recent policy implemented to support public...

UNU-WIDER, Ludvig Wier - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

New research provides the first direct evidence of tax-motivated transfer mispricing in a developing country. Using highly detailed firm-level customs data from the tax authority, the analysis calculates the difference between legitimate estimates of market prices (known as the arm’s-length...

– Making a case for universal social protection in Latin America
Santiago Levy - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The 2019 WIDER Annual Lecture discusses the challenges of social protection in economies with large informal sectors, such as in Latin America. Making a critical distinction between social insurance and social assistance programmes — the former address risks which are common to all workers...

UNU-WIDER, Ludvig Wier - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The study uses a comparative analysis of foreign-owned firms operating in South Africa to show that firms with a parent registered in a tax haven tend to report 80% less in profits than similar firms without a parent in a tax haven. This is highly suggestive, but not conclusive, evidence of...

Jukka Pirttilä - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Social protection has attracted increasing interest in developing countries in recent decades and policies have been initiated in all developing regions. When countries build up their social protection systems, they need reliable information and tools on how the systems should be designed. They...

– Growth and beyond
Rachel M. Gisselquist, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The questions of whether aid has impact and is effective have been the subject of considerable attention. This thematic issue brings together nine studies that speak to the diverse ways in which aid affects development outcomes including, but not limited to, growth. It takes stock of what we know...

– Global trends and data challenges
Rachel M. Gisselquist, Carla Canelas - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Inequality—both vertical (between individuals and households) and horizontal (between groups)—is a core concern in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, despite considerable attention to horizontal inequality in both research and policy, there are notable gaps and...

Rachel M. Gisselquist - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

‘Legal empowerment’ is defined as a process of systemic change through which the poor and excluded become able to use the law to protect and advance their rights and interests as citizens and economic actors. Since the 2000s, legal empowerment initiatives have established a widely...

Displaying 48 of 267 results.