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Publications (208)

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Social protection systems in Africa are still in their infancy. As countries develop their systems, it is crucial to look at how existing tax-benefit programmes affect poverty and inequality and how countries can learn from each other’s systems.​​ Microsimulation models can be used to...

– Are non-farm jobs the driver or a brake?
Chris Elbers, Peter Lanjouw - UNU-WIDER, 2019

The increasing proportion of non-agricultural work in rural India has commonly been associated with widening income inequality. However, our simulations from the village of Palanpur in the north suggest that without this diversification inequality might well have increased even more. From...

– The case of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Much discussion of climate change in the developing world focuses on if, when, and to what extent developing countries should be subject to any global attempts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Little work has been done on the likely economic impacts resulting from the interplay of climate change...

– Correcting the data on top incomes in China
Qinghai Li, Shi Li, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

China has experienced fast economic growth over the last forty years. The number of Chinese billionaires has grown exceptionally fast and their wealth has increased enormously. At the same time, official statistics report decreasing inequality over the most recent decade. However, correcting data...

– Progress on equality thwarted by slow growth and success of top earners
Murray Leibbrandt, Timothy Shipp - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

South Africa has the highest rate of measured inequality in the world. Often thought to be a legacy of the apartheid system, inequality in South Africa has stubbornly persisted.  South Africa’s position as highest inequality country in the world has not changed Progressive...

– Inclusive growth trend of this millennium is over
Marcelo Neri - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

After three decades of persistently high inequality, Brazil has been experiencing a downward trend since 2001, accompanied by a rise in household incomes. These trends lasted until 2014 when a major reversal took place on both fronts. Since the 1970s Brazil has been one of the most unequal...

– A tax-benefit microsimulation
Remmy Kampamba, Luca Pellerano, Charles Banda, Obbie Musama - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

In an attempt to reduce poverty and vulnerability in a sustainable and cost-effective way, in 2003 the Zambian Government introduced a social cash transfer (SCT) scheme. However, a recent review of Zambia’s social assistance system revealed that this scheme provided insufficient coverage to...

Björn Gustafsson, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

From an international perspective, growth in average wages has been very impressive in urban China during recent decades. Average wages were about ten times as high in 2013 as in 1988. But how has wage inequality evolved during this period? Wage inequality increased rapidly in urban China...

Hai‐Anh H. Dang, Peter Lanjouw - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Following the introduction of economic reforms in the early 1990s, India today is achieving unprecedented per capita growth rates. Poverty reduction has also accelerated and is justly celebrated. There is great concern, however, that this growth is being accompanied by rising inequality. ...

– On the rise again
Raymundo M. Campos-Vázquez, Nora Lustig, John Scott - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Since 1989, inequality in Mexico has risen, declined, and risen again. The evolution of labour income inequality is at the core of this pattern. To reverse the current trend of rising inequality, access to secondary and tertiary education should continue to expand, minimum wages should be...

– Income growth for the poor, but more for the rich
Shi Li, Terry Sicular, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

In the late 1970s, China embarked on a major programme of economic transition and reform. Since then, China’s economy has been transformed from a socialist planned economy to a predominately market economy characterized by a combination of state, private, and mixed forms of ownership. Over...

Gary S. Fields, Guillermo Cruces, David Jaume, Mariana Viollaz - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Some questions have been present since the very first days of development economics but have gained increased attention in recent years: Has economic growth resulted in gains in standards of living and reductions in poverty via improved labor market conditions? How do the rate and character of...

– New gas finds, investments, and their implications in Mozambique
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Large flows of foreign investments have not been translated into a boom for the Mozambican economy. On the contrary, they have foreshadowed a sustained period of deep economic difficulty for the country. What is the story behind this phenomenon and what are its implications? Mozambique has...

– Will local content do the trick?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Extractives and interlinked industries are expecting a boom in Mozambique. This could be good news for the country’s economy, in theory. But can extractives really work as a driver to diversify the Mozambican economy? It is unlikely that the extractives sector can any time soon be...

– Industrialization in Africa reconsidered
Richard Newfarmer, John Page - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Our research shows that structural change in Africa is relying on a new set of economic activities, called ‘industries without smokestacks’, created by recent technological changes and a changing global market place. Adopting a broad concept of industrialization is crucial to...

Jean-Philippe Platteau - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

There are three main channels of women’s empowerment: legal or policy reforms, outside economic opportunities, and collective action. Legal (or policy) reforms are generally based on statutory laws that enact rules to be followed or prohibit certain practices. External economic...

– Results from a baseline survey
Ricardo Santos, Sam Jones - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Before now, there has been no systematic study of the transition of university students as they finish their studies and enter the labour market. This Policy Brief summarises the findings of a baseline survey of such university students, who form the sample of a longitudinal tracking survey that...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

As with many other developed and emerging economies, in recent decades Mexico has experienced a long-term decline in the labour income share. The decline is observed in both the share of wages in value added and in more comprehensive measures that include the labour income of the self-employed....

– Lessons from international experience
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Mozambique has seen a significant expansion of interest and investment in its extractive industries. New gas finds in the past ten years have led to expectations that these industries will contribute very significantly to the country’s future economic development and its long-term...

Ricardo Santos - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Weak supply chains, both in quantity and quality, impose logistical challenges on Mozambican manufacturing firms. The Mozambican regulatory and legal environment continue to be perceived as a hurdle. Regulatory barriers hinder firm capacity to export. Access to credit remains...

Ricardo Santos - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Firms that survived the economic downturn adopted restrictive human resources management, reducing the workforce and making it more flexible, which in turn made employment more vulnerable. In 2017, manufacturing sector leadership appears both more satisfied and more inclined to support...

– What is known and where are the knowledge gaps?
Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) remarkably progress has been made on health issues. Globally, under-five mortality rate has decreased by 56%, from an estimated rate of 93 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 41 deaths per 1000 live births in 2016. To build health-care systems that...

Channing Arndt, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

The importance of reducing poverty is universally acknowledged, and represents an important part of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, the appropriate measurement of poverty and wellbeing remains complex and controversial. A UNU-WIDER study addresses means to significantly lower the...

– The latest evidence on the effectiveness of ODA
Tony Addison, Finn Tarp, Oliver Morrissey - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

The death of aid has often been declared, and private capital flows as well as earnings from natural resources now far exceed official development assistance (ODA) in aggregate. However, the recent and sharp downturn in resource earnings, the ability of ODA to fund public goods that private...

Channing Arndt, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Development aid by itself cannot ‘save the planet’. Yet, development aid and institutions have the potential to remain important catalytic actors in achieving developmental and global environmental objectives. Developing countries must be crucial players in successful climate change...

Channing Arndt, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

In broad terms, the climate challenge is relatively straightforward. Global average temperatures are rising because of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Continuation of current levels of emissions or (worse) continued growth in emissions throughout the twenty-first century could result...

– Four lessons for Africa
John Page, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Industrial policy has finally moved away from the arid debate on ‘picking winners’ versus ‘levelling the playing field’. Today, there is growing understanding that the market imperfections on which the theoretical arguments for industrial policy rest are pervasive,...

– Three challenges limiting the potential for inclusive growth
Haroon Bhorat, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Historically, the African continent has been largely dismissed as a case of regional economic delinquency, with the levels of growth necessary to reduce poverty and inequality deemed to be consistently unattainable. In the last decade, however, significantly higher levels of...

– The case of Viet Nam
Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

​The quality and availability of data has become an international priority highlighted by the call for a data revolution in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Researchers and policy makers have responded to this call in the Vietnamese context through the Viet Nam Access to Resources...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change is one of the most complex and urgent of global issues due to its potential impacts and the policies and measures needed to address those impacts. Both are potential game changers for the Earth’s biosphere, ways of life, and economic development into the twenty-first century...

– How inflated expectations of oil revenues led to a deterioration in macroeconomic management
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Prior to the discovery of oil, Ghana was one of the stars of the ‘Africa rising’ story, with an established track record of macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. When oil was discovered, there were great hopes that Ghana would avoid the ‘resource curse’. Initial...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Driven by rapid growth in mining and related infrastructure investment, exports of machinery and equipment from South Africa to other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries more than quadrupled from 2003 to 2013. Growth has, however, since slowed due to a more subdued commodity...

– Success and failure in the extractive sector
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

A central difficulty for extractive activity is that benefits accrue at the national level but disruptions are highly localized. Companies recognise that these imbalances need to be addressed and adopt active programmes to improve local benefits. These programmes have had mixed past success,...

Ricardo Santos, Vincenzo Salvucci - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon involving things other than consumption — such as access to and quality of health and education, housing, possession of durable goods, freedom, and many other factors. The consumption and multidimensional poverty approaches are complementary: it is...

Rachel M. Gisselquist - UNU-WIDER, 2017 - Helsinki, Finland

Development assistance to fragile states and conflict-affected areas is a core component of peacebuilding. It includes support for the restoration of core government functions, delivery of basic services, the rule of law, and economic revitalization. Yet, while aid has been among the largest...

– Significant progress but challenges remain
Ricardo Santos, Vincenzo Salvucci - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

In 1990, Mozambique was one of the poorest countries in the world, with poverty estimated to reach 80% of the total population. At that stage, a Millennium Development Goal of reducing this proportion by half posed a very difficult target to meet. After the ‘war of destabilization’ in...

Rachel M. Gisselquist, Miguel Niño-Zarazúa - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Experimental studies using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are a powerful tool in policy analysis. They have been sometimes hailed as the best means of identifying ‘what works’ in development policy. However, it would be unwise to rely solely on findings from RCTs to guide policy...

– The challenge of industrialization
Carol Newman, John Page, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

International goals and Africa’s aspirations The international community has a new set of development goals, and they reflect Africa’s aspirations much more closely than the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they replaced. Their single most important contribution is to recognize...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Transport and logistical efficiencies are critical factors in the competitiveness of regional value producers. The relatively high cost of regional transport in Southern Africa has impacted suppliers’ cost-competitiveness. Reducing the cost of bringing products into main markets is one way...

Research Brief pdf
– The importance of mitigating emissions
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

More intense climate changes are expected in South Africa if GHG emissions are not constrained. Increased GHG emissions are likely to result in increases in average annual surface temperatures and higher evaporation rates. Average precipitation levels across South Africa are...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

The demand for irrigation is likely to increase in South Africa as a result of increased temperatures and evaporation rates. Rain-fed agricultural crops are likely to experience a decline in average annual yields. This is particularly the case for maize and wheat, which are staple foods...

Research Brief pdf
– The animal-feed-to-poultry value chain
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

15-20% of local demand for poultry in South Africa is met by imports Evidence from Zambia suggests that capital investments in the value chain can increase local production Increased demand due to growing urban populations poses critical challenges for local industrialization in...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Climate change risks for run-off and irrigation demand vary significantly across South Africa, with some regions expected to experience increased drying and others flooding Smaller impacts on water resources by 2050 are expected if global emissions are mitigated Even under strong...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Supermarkets are potential partners in regional industrial development and should be considered in future policy making While the growth of supermarkets in the region has improved competitive pricing and accessibility to a broader range of products and services, it has also imposed...

– How to support effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions for sustainable development?
Rachel M. Gisselquist, Danielle Resnick - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

Aiding government effectiveness in developing countries has been a priority issue for the international donor community since the 1990s. With the Paris Declaration in 1994, donors further committed to aiding government effectiveness in a manner consistent with local ownership and harmonization...

– Creating good jobs in Africa
Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

The prevailing narrative about growth and development in Africa has shifted dramatically. During the1980s and 90s pessimism abounded. Today, a more optimistic narrative of development in the region largely reigns. However challenges still remain. In particular structural transformation has been...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

While South Africa’s democratic transition precipitated a period of growth, this growth was not inclusive and both poverty and inequality remain high A significant trend in the South African labour market has been the rising share of workers in the public sector High levels of...

– Evidence from a 16 country study
Channing Arndt, Andy McKay, Finn Tarp - UNU-WIDER, 2016 - Helsinki, Finland

While the recovery and acceleration of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since about 1995 has been widely recognized, much less is known about the extent to which this growth has been translated into improvements in welfare for the population in general and poverty reduction in...

Displaying 48 of 208 results.