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Publications (148)

– Impacts on economic development
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Over the past 20 years, researchers have been looking at the economic lifecycle of individuals around the world using National Transfer Accounts (NTA) data. The focus of this research has been on understanding how societies produce, consume, share, and save resources across generations, how these...

– Socioeconomic class and poverty in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

South Africa is often cited as the most unequal economy in the world. Its experience of having to overcome both colonialism and apartheid makes it unique from the vantage of studies on socioeconomic class, economic mobility, and poverty — with household characteristics like race, gender,...

– The case of value-added tax in South Africa
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

In a democratic system, taxation is a critical part of the social contract between the state and its citizens. The tax system can be used to help address the unacceptably high levels of poverty, inequality, and unemployment in South Africa. An increase in VAT from 14% to 15% caused a modest...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

The World Bank reports that the world loses US$160 trillion in human capital wealth due to gender wage inequality every year. Inequality is not just an issue of fairness. It is also undesirable because it hampers poverty reduction strategies and leads to suboptimal allocation of resources. In...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Regional integration is making steady progress in Southern Africa, leading to the development of regional value chains (RVCs) that could strengthen the competitiveness of the region. Importantly, the development of RVCs also creates pressure for further integration. While integration brings major...

– Addressing the lack of data and observing the structure of the economy
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

With the recent democratic elections, Myanmar has entered a new development phase. To support this process there is amongst others a need for sound economic policies that have an economy-wide perspective. To enable such policies, appropriate analytical methods and the relevant underlying data,...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Social protection systems in Africa are still in their infancy. As countries develop their systems, it is crucial to look at how existing tax-benefit programmes affect poverty and inequality and how countries can learn from each other’s systems.​​ Microsimulation models can be used to...

– Are non-farm jobs the driver or a brake?
Chris Elbers, Peter Lanjouw - UNU-WIDER, 2019

The increasing proportion of non-agricultural work in rural India has commonly been associated with widening income inequality. However, our simulations from the village of Palanpur in the north suggest that without this diversification inequality might well have increased even more. From...

– The case of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

Much discussion of climate change in the developing world focuses on if, when, and to what extent developing countries should be subject to any global attempts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Little work has been done on the likely economic impacts resulting from the interplay of climate change...

– Correcting the data on top incomes in China
Qinghai Li, Shi Li, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

China has experienced fast economic growth over the last forty years. The number of Chinese billionaires has grown exceptionally fast and their wealth has increased enormously. At the same time, official statistics report decreasing inequality over the most recent decade. However, correcting data...

– A tax-benefit microsimulation
Remmy Kampamba, Luca Pellerano, Charles Banda, Obbie Musama - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

In an attempt to reduce poverty and vulnerability in a sustainable and cost-effective way, in 2003 the Zambian Government introduced a social cash transfer (SCT) scheme. However, a recent review of Zambia’s social assistance system revealed that this scheme provided insufficient coverage to...

Björn Gustafsson, Haiyuan Wan - UNU-WIDER, 2019 - Helsinki, Finland

From an international perspective, growth in average wages has been very impressive in urban China during recent decades. Average wages were about ten times as high in 2013 as in 1988. But how has wage inequality evolved during this period? Wage inequality increased rapidly in urban China...

– New gas finds, investments, and their implications in Mozambique
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Large flows of foreign investments have not been translated into a boom for the Mozambican economy. On the contrary, they have foreshadowed a sustained period of deep economic difficulty for the country. What is the story behind this phenomenon and what are its implications? Mozambique has...

– Will local content do the trick?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Extractives and interlinked industries are expecting a boom in Mozambique. This could be good news for the country’s economy, in theory. But can extractives really work as a driver to diversify the Mozambican economy? It is unlikely that the extractives sector can any time soon be...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

As with many other developed and emerging economies, in recent decades Mexico has experienced a long-term decline in the labour income share. The decline is observed in both the share of wages in value added and in more comprehensive measures that include the labour income of the self-employed....

– Lessons from international experience
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2018 - Helsinki, Finland

Mozambique has seen a significant expansion of interest and investment in its extractive industries. New gas finds in the past ten years have led to expectations that these industries will contribute very significantly to the country’s future economic development and its long-term...

Displaying 16 of 148 results.