Working Paper
Female leaders and gender gaps within the firm

Evidence from three sub-Saharan African countries

We study the association between the gender of the highest-ranking manager (the CEO) and gender differences in employees’ outcomes using detailed linked employer–employee data from the formal sector in Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, and Senegal. Our empirical strategy relies on the inclusion of firm fixed effects and workers’ characteristics.

Our results point toward a negative correlation between female CEO and the relative wages and job satisfaction of female employees. However, female employees working under a female CEO who owns the firm are not paid less than their male colleagues.