WIDERAngle

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Measuring inequality in middle-income countries

Income inequality is the result of complex processes with multiple interacting driving forces but understanding those drivers in emerging economies is particularly difficult because of data and analytical challenges. While most middle-income countries produce comprehensive household surveys these are subject to limitations. It can, for instance, be difficult to get accurate information — or any information — about the richest and poorest in a society. And so it is necessary to...

Inequality: Driving forces and policy solutions

The many faces of inequality Measuring inequality isn’t as simple as it may seem. We know that since the 1970s global inequality has been falling in relative terms, but absolute inequality has been increasing over the same period. There are also substantial differences in trends across the different regions of the world. In North America, Europe and sub-Saharan Africa inequality has been increasing steadily in both relative and absolute terms, while in Latin America, East Asia, and...

How can developing countries deliver effective public financial planning?

by Antonio Savoia, Roberto Ricciuti, Kunal Sen
In many less developed countries, there is little problem identifying the need for public investment in programmes aimed at improving things such as infrastructure, health and education. The problem comes in delivering them. An important factor in whether these kinds of programmes are successfully implemented is states’ ability to develop effective public financial planning. For example, the capability to manage, implement, and monitor the budget is strategically important in this...

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Research Brief
The impact of tax-benefit systems in Africa May 2019

Social protection systems in Africa are still in their infancy...

Tax-benefit microsimulation tax-benefit policy microsimulation
Research Brief
Inequality in rural India: Are non-farm jobs the driver or a brake? May 2019

The increasing proportion of non-agricultural work in rural India has commonly been associated with widening income inequality...

Income inequality non-farm employment Poverty
Research Brief
Global mitigation policies and developing country economies: The case of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia May 2019

Much discussion of climate change in the developing world focuses on if, when, and to what extent developing countries should be subject to any global attempts to curb greenhouse gas emissions...

Climate change Climate uncertainty Global mitigation
Research Brief
The missing billionaires: Correcting the data on top incomes in China May 2019

China has experienced fast economic growth over the last forty years. The number of Chinese billionaires has grown exceptionally fast and their wealth has increased enormously...

Top incomes Income inequality Taxation
Blog
Measuring inequality in middle-income countries

Income inequality is the result of complex processes with multiple interacting driving forces but understanding those drivers in emerging economies is particularly difficult because of data and analytical challenges...

Global inequality Economic inequality Top incomes
Blog
Inequality: Driving forces and policy solutions

The many faces of inequality Measuring inequality isn’t as simple as it may seem. We know that since the 1970s global inequality has been falling in relative terms, but absolute inequality has been increasing over the same period...

Global inequality WIID Income inequality
Blog
Narendra Modi’s performance on the Indian economy: Five key policies assessed

When Narendra Modi became India’s prime minister in spring 2014 the Indian economy was in the doldrums...

demonitisation Political economy Elections
Blog
India’s General Elections 2019: The potential electoral consequences of demonetisation

In the campaign leading up to the Lok Sabha elections in spring 2014, one of the more important promises that Narendra Modi made was to ‘clean up’ the economy by bringing back to India all the illicit money that was purportedly stashed aw...

demonitisation Political economy Elections
Blog
How can developing countries deliver effective public financial planning?

In many less developed countries, there is little problem identifying the need for public investment in programmes aimed at improving things such as infrastructure, health and education. The problem comes in delivering them...

SDGs SDG16 SDG17
Policy Brief
Reducing inequalities in South Africa: Progress on equality thwarted by slow growth and success of top earners May 2019

South Africa has the highest rate of measured inequality in the world. Often thought to be a legacy of the apartheid system, inequality in South Africa has stubbornly persisted...

Earnings personal income tax Survey data
Policy Brief
Inequality in Brazil: Inclusive growth trend of this millennium is over May 2019

After three decades of persistently high inequality, Brazil has been experiencing a downward trend since 2001, accompanied by a rise in household incomes. These trends lasted until 2014 when a major reversal took place on both fronts...

Income inequality Fiscal redistribution Household income
Research Brief
Financing the social cash transfer scale-up in Zambia: A tax-benefit microsimulation April 2019

In an attempt to reduce poverty and vulnerability in a sustainable and cost-effective way, in 2003 the Zambian Government introduced a social cash transfer (SCT) scheme...

Economic inequality Poverty Social cash transfers
Blog
What should Mozambique do with the revenue from natural gas projects? (Part III)

At the beginning of this decade, large offshore natural gas fields were discovered in north-east Mozambique. Investment is now flowing into the country, and a boom in the natural gas sector is expected...

Extractives Mozambique Revenues
Research Brief
Wage inequality in urban China April 2019

From an international perspective, growth in average wages has been very impressive in urban China during recent decades. Average wages were about ten times as high in 2013 as in 1988. But how has wage inequality evolved during this period?...

Wages Income inequality Wage growth
Blog
What should Mozambique do with the revenue from natural gas projects? (Part II)

At the beginning of this decade, large offshore natural gas fields were discovered in north-east Mozambique. Investment is now flowing into the country, and a boom in the natural gas sector is expected...

Extractives Mozambique Revenues
Blog
What should Mozambique do with the revenue from natural gas projects? (Part I)

At the beginning of this decade, large offshore natural gas fields were discovered in north-east Mozambique. Investment is now flowing into the country, and a boom in the natural gas sector is expected...

Extractives Mozambique Revenues
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