Working Paper
Protectionist Tendencies in the North and Vulnerable Economies in the South

This paper  examines  whether  protectionist  tendencies,  in terms of both policy preferences and policy actions, in 'Northern' countries-looking in particular at the United States - seem to be an obstacle to the integration into  the  world  economy  of  small,  vulnerable  'Southern'  countries.  The paper makes three related points. First, current trade barriers in the North appear to cost Southern countries billions of dollars annually. Second, although some WTO-governed trade barriers in the North are declining, it appears that there is an increasing US resistance to further globalization via trade,   investment,   and   immigration   liberalization.   Third,   the   paper speculates  about  what  forces  might  be  driving  this  rising  Northern resistance to further liberalization, and what this resistance may imply for the integration prospects of small, vulnerable economies