Book Chapter
Provision of Social Services

Civil Economy, Cultural Evolution, and Participatory Development

Development undertakes a process that involves only two vital institutions—the market and the government. It is argued that this notion should be expanded to incorporate and acknowledge the contributions of civil society. With the existence of non-governmental organisations that promote non-profit and voluntary endeavours, the observation of human rights, the materialisation of labour standards, and the pursuance of mutual benefits through cooperation will be possible. Considering these premises, the phrase civil society must be termed as civil economy, which is formed by the majority's decision. Although it is observed that the recurring phase of development among various countries is different from these perceptions, the chapter strongly reflects that the present generation is in need of heightened collective decision making processes and increased cooperative ventures.