Journal Article
When the Lewisian dream sours

Industrial aspirations and reverse labour migration

The COVID-19 pandemic has escalated processes of labour transition from industrial work to the informal economy, which have always characterized the life of the working poor. This study explores this kind of reverse transition, that is, when the Lewisian dream of having an industrial job comes to an end, and workers are forced into a reverse migration.

Specifically, the study focuses on the post-industrial experiences of former Indian garment workers leaving the National Capital Region and moving back to Bihar. Emphasis is placed on workers’ reasons for leaving the industry and their current employment and reproductive strategies.

Findings are based on a sample of 50 former workers, identified in urban industrial hamlets and traced back to their place of origin. Respondents’ experiences are analysed based on semi-quantitative questionnaires and life histories. Findings reveal that upon leaving the factory, workers find alternative informal employment through caste or social networks whilst using land as safety net.

They suggest that farming and informal work are not alternative but rather complementary income and work strategies. By adopting a life-cycle approach to studying labour transitions across formal and informal employment domains, this analysis contributes to policy debates on decent work.

Journal Article