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Publications (293)

Andreas Backhaus, Elke Loichinger - UNU-WIDER, 2022 - Helsinki, Finland

Several sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have achieved substantial economic growth in the past 30 years. Likewise, access to education has considerably expanded, as reflected in rising enrolment rates for both men and women. Female labour force participation (FLFP) rates, however, are stagnant...

– Overcoming the developer’s dilemma
Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana, Kunal Sen, Andy Sumner, Arief Anshory Yusuf - UNU-WIDER, 2022

There are multiple pathways of structural transformation and different inequality dynamics of each. Rising inequality is not inevitable — policies make a difference. Broad-based economic development requires public policies to address any upward pressure on inequality. A...

UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2022 - Helsinki, Finland

Governments in low- and middle-income countries face a trade-off between raising tax revenue to strengthen social protection and creating incentives to enter formal employment. In developed countries so called in-work transfers (i.e., social benefits paid upon condition of being employed) have...

– Policy options for a sustainable fiscal regime
Andrew Mwaba, Steve Kayizzi-Mugerwa - UNU-WIDER, 2022 - Helsinki, Finland

This brief provides concrete proposals on how Zambia's government could create a robust fiscal regime to achieve a steady flow of mineral revenue and encourage increased local participation in mining — while ensuring environmental sustainability. Zambia has had many mineral...

Vegard Iversen, Anirudh Krishna, Kunal Sen - UNU-WIDER, 2022 - Helsinki, Finland

The volume, Social Mobility in Developing Countries: Concepts, Methods, and Determinants, brings together leading scholars from a range of social science disciplines working on a variety of issues related to social mobility. Three motivations guide this joint effort: identifying important...

– Are moderate increases more sustainable?
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2022 - Helsinki, Finland

Domestic revenue mobilization (DRM) — the generation of government revenue from domestic tax and non-tax resources — plays a crucial role in building an enduring financing architecture for sustainable development. This brief summarizes the dynamics of DRM trends across the past four...

Vegard Iversen, Anirudh Krishna, Kunal Sen - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

The volume, Social Mobility in Developing Countries: Concepts, Methods and Determinants, brings together leading scholars from several disciplines to advance research practice on social mobility. Three sets of motivations guide this joint effort: identifying important knowledge gaps; bringing...

Vegard Iversen, Anirudh Krishna, Kunal Sen - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Promoting social mobility is an essential task of development, and a multi-faceted one. Precarious livelihoods are widespread. Containing downward mobility is an important precondition for sustaining upward mobility.  Policies of human capital development assist but do not...

José Cardoso, Vanda Castelo, Finório Castigo, Michael Noble, Rodrigo C. Oliveira, Pia Rattenhuber, Gemma Wright - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Moçambique reportou o seu primeiro caso da COVID-19 em 22 de Março de 2020. As estimativas do PIB sugerem um forte efeito da pandemia, com uma redução de sete dos nove dos sectores de actividade analisados. No entanto, o sector agrícola – um dos mais...

Ronald Waiswa, Jesse Lastunen, Gemma Wright, Michael Noble, Joseph Okello Ayo, Milly Isingoma Nalukwago, Tina Kaidu Barugahara, Susan Kavuma, Isaac Arinaitwe, Martin Mwesigye, Wilson Asiimwe, Pia Rattenhuber - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Presumptive tax, a final tax on business income, was introduced in Uganda in 1997. It has been reformed several times since its conception. The latest reform in July 2020 sought to make the presumptive regime more progressive, simpler and fairer to small firms. The revised rates have however...

– Simulating potential Cash Plus reforms
Katrin Gasior, David McLennan, Mbewe Kalikeka, Miselo Bwalya, Maria Jouste - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

A large share of the population in Zambia is living below the national poverty line, with most of them being extremely poor. In a bid to improve the social and economic situation, the Zambian government introduced the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) programme which provides cash payments to poor and...

– Evidence from risk-based tax examinations
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Risk-based approaches are becoming commonplace for tax authorities as a tool for enforcement. Improvements in technology, technological adoption and in some cases machine learning, hold great promise for finding the taxpayers who are most likely to avoid taxes, thus improving the detection...

Elineema Kisanga, Vincent Leyaro, Michael Noble, Rodrigo C. Oliveira, Pia Rattenhuber, Gemma Wright - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Tanzania, similar to most sub-Saharan countries, reported its first COVID-19 cases in March 2020. While GDP estimates suggest that the economy was less hard hit than in other African countries, some sectors have nevertheless experienced negative growth. Even with contained GDP contractions in...

Jesse Lastunen, Gemma Wright, Michael Noble, Ronald Waiswa, Joseph Okello Ayo, Milly Isingoma Nalukwago - , 2021

In 2020, the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic caused an economic crisis that disrupted the Ugandan labour market. How large were the associated income losses across different industries and population groups? To what extent did the general tax-benefit system mitigate the adverse effects of the...

Kwabena Adu-Ababio, Robert Darko Osei, Jukka Pirttilä, Pia Rattenhuber - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

The first cases of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa were reported in March 2020, and the impact of the pandemic has since rippled through the world and Africa. In response to the crisis and similarly to many of its peers, Ghana has enacted a variety of containment measures to confront the pandemic...

José Cardoso, Vanda Castelo, Finório Castigo, Michael Noble, Rodrigo C. Oliveira, Pia Rattenhuber, Gemma Wright - UNU-WIDER, 2021 - Helsinki, Finland

Mozambique reported its first case of COVID-19 on 22 March 2020. GDP estimates suggest a strong pandemic effect, with a reduction in seven of nine business sectors analysed. However, the agriculture sector, one of the most important, experienced a 9% increase, which may have cushioned the...

Displaying 16 of 293 results.