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Publications (256)

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Development of green cities is one way to help address problems associated with climate change. Curitiba, Brazil, combines integrated sustainable urban planning and strong leadership, resulting in a reduced environmental impact since it began these policies in 1966....

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

A secure environment is an important component of successful economic development initiatives. Policing reforms in African states have been disappointing; the image of state policy and police–community relations remain poor. States that have enacted successful...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Japan’s post-war liberalizing reforms were a success. This was partly due to the fact that US occupation preserved the strength of national institutions and made effective use of their capacity. Improvement in the scope of the state and the strength of Afghan...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Kosovo and East Timor share many similar characteristics, and yet they have had divergent results in post-conflict state building. East Timor has enjoyed far greater development success since its independence, whereas Kosovo is now the poorest and most economically...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

There are over 900 million working people who earn less than US$2 a day, while 200 million people are unemployed. Unemployment is a bigger problem in high-income countries, in low-income countries unemployment is rarer as work is essential for survival for the poor....

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Many World Bank investments include women’s concerns only superficially. Lack of attention to gender roles negatively impacts women’s rights. The Bank’s continued promotion of user fees in sexual and reproductive health projects prevents poor women from...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

A number of small, isolated countries are not experiencing the rapid economic growth of larger, more connected economies due to weak governance and isolation. Small, isolated economies require more aid to alleviate poverty than rapidly developing, converging economies...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Afghanistan has received vast amounts of development aid, but results may not be sufficiently robust. There is a limited menu of acceptable options for institutional arrangements, leading to a high dependence on external resources, technical expertise, and ...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Three-quarters of the world’s poor (however defined) live in countries classified as middle-income. Donors need not assume their only option is to abandon countries once they cross the arbitrary threshold in per capita income. The thresholds themselves currently...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Transitional justice processes often fail to adequately deal with gender issues. Attempting to deal with gender-based violence during periods of transitional justice is often seen as destabilizing and a threat to future stability. Women’s rights are still often seen...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Development practice continues to operate on the assumptions of an outdated theory of modernization. Developing countries often sustain legitimacy by imitating other successful modern institutions without actually developing the functionality of the institutions they...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

The natural resource sector in Liberia has failed to produce links to other important sectors of the economy, and in particular has failed to create jobs for the large majority of the population. Creating new and productive jobs is key to national reconciliation. The...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Current development practice focuses too much on the form institutions take, at the expense of worrying about function. A focus on strict rules that aim to curb corruption and inefficiency can diminish the amount of experimentation and adaptation that is possible. The...

Research Brief pdf
– The Role of Land
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Land-based services will become increasingly important as global public goods in the context of changing climate, particularly in terms of mitigation and adaptation. Carbon sequestration, irrigation, infrastructure and local environmental services will all need...

Research Brief pdf
– Global Issues, Bilateral Delivery
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Levels of environmental aid for global issues are increasing. Environmental aid is increasingly allocated through bilateral aid agencies rather than through the multilateral channels created for this purpose. A consistent demand of developing countries has been that...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Over the period 2007–50 climate change is predicted to cause Vietnam’s annual GDP growth rate to fall between 0.02 and 0.10 percentage points. While small relative to GDP, absolute loss levels due to climate change are significant at between US$6-15$ billion (in...

Research Brief pdf
UNU-WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

All climate scenarios considered result in reduced national welfare, if no reforms are enacted. If no policy changes are implemented, the present value of climate change costs up to 2050 are between US2 and US7 billion, for the scenarios considered in Mozambique. Climate...

Research Brief pdf
– What Works and What Could Work?
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Current international agricultural development and food security systems are ill-prepared to address the global agriculture, food and nutrition problems. Structural reforms are necessary to deliver the essential international public goods for improved food security; better...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

The three goals of promoting development, adaptation to climate change, and climate change mitigation are in reality inseparable policy areas and as such there is a compelling case for addressing them simultaneously. Climate finance aimed at helping developing countries to...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Decentralized Service Delivery in Nairobi and Mombasa: Policies, politics and inter-governmental relations’ Winnie V. Mitullah assesses the major obstacles to providing critical services, such as solid waste management and water, in Nairobi and Mombasa. She...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Aid and Investment in Statistics for Africa’ Jeffery I. Round discusses how the effectiveness of aid aimed at improving statistical capacity in Africa can be assessed. He begins by describing the reasons behind the increasing demand for data, and the...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Development aid aimed at increasing productivity in the fisheries sector has at times had a negative effect by encouraging or facilitating overfishing. A percentage increase in capacity enhancing or bad subsidies in sub-Sahara Africa, all else being equal, will increase...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Review shows that global agricultural production must be increased by about 70 per cent by 2050 in order to provide sufficient nourishment for the world’s growing population. Focusing on tropical climates to 2050, climate change is likely to reduce the rate of agricultural...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

The goal of economic growth combined with environmental protection in developing countries requires not just financial and technological resources, but also the local capacity to design and implement successful policies. Aid programmes for capacity-building related to...

Policy Brief pdf
– Understanding Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries
Wim Naudé, Tilman Brück, Philip Verwimp - UNU Press, 2013 - Tokyo, Japan

Although the impacts of violent conflict on investment, production, incomes and inequality have been widely studied on an aggregate level, comparatively less is known about the more diverse impacts of such conflict at the micro (particularly firm) level. Understanding such impacts can improve...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

It is widely recognized that entrepreneurship is of critical importance to industrial development. Despite this importance we know little about the skills of business owners and managers in developing countries. In the WIDER Working Paper ‘The Role of Training in Fostering Cluster-Based...

Research Brief pdf
– Findings and Lessons for the Future
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Under-nutrition is the single biggest cause of the global burden of disease, and many of those affected are children. Early childhood under-nutrition has severe consequences; it accounts for more than 35 per cent of deaths and another 35 per cent of the disease burden in children under five years...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

The most successful projects and programmes are those that give local partners real ownership over the development process. Aid to health is not always allocated to the areas where it is most needed. Aid fragmentation creates extra costs for recipient countries and reduces...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Lessons of what works in foreign aid to education are often known but not implemented. Developing the technical capacity of those involved in education is a crucial part of improving educational quality. Many of the problems related to capacity development in the education...

Research Brief pdf
– Ways to Attain MDG4 and MDG5
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Progress towards the achievement of MDG4 and MDG5 has been impressive with both maternal and child mortality being reduced by over 40 per cent since 1990. However, achieving the goal of a reduction of two-thirds by 2015 will not be easy. The Paris Declaration principles of...

Research Brief pdf
– Crucial for the Spread of Social Protection Programmes
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Evaluations of social protection programmes have been much more comprehensive in Latin America than in sub-Saharan Africa. Monitoring and evaluation protocols are crucial to facilitate improvements in government effectiveness. Anti-poverty transfer schemes seem to be...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

An increase of education aid by one per cent increases the rate of primary education enrolment by 0.06 percentage points. The most robust effect on primary enrolment is obtained by aid to the category ‘education facilities and training’. High levels of...

Research Brief pdf
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Most studies show that education aid has a modest but positive effect on enrolment levels. Less is known about the effect of aid on the quality of education. The effectiveness of education aid is to a large degree dependent on the stability of the institutions in the...

Policy Brief pdf
Wim Naudé, Adam Szirmai - UNU Press, 2013 - Tokyo, Japan

New challenges and emerging paradigms have turned industrialization and industrial policy into one of the most hotly debated and interesting issues of the early twenty-first century. Both the role of manufacturing in economic development and the contributions of industrial policy are contested. In...

Policy Brief pdf
– Strategies and Lessons from the Developing World
Augustin Kwasi Fosu - UNU Press, 2013 - Tokyo, Japan

What can the less well-off developing countries learn from the ’successes’ of other developing countries? This Policy Brief highlights successful development strategies and lessons from in-depth case studies of select countries from the developing world. The coverage includes East Asia...

Policy Brief pdf
– Historical Accounts from More Advanced Countries
Augustin Kwasi Fosu - UNU Press, 2013 - Tokyo, Japan

What, if anything, can today's developing countries learn from the past strategies of more advanced countries? the answer is 'a great deal', despite the obvious fact that the development environment has changed significantly. Based on 11 themes, this Policy Brief highlights the...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

China is the world’s largest developing country and its huge population requires a similarly large agricultural sector to sustain it. A major challenge for China faces is working out how increasing demands for food can be met at the same time as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions....

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

It is a widely accept projection that many low income countries (LICs) will remain low income for some time to come. Consequently, when assessing the policy options available to LICs it is important to take a long-term view. In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Aid, Fiscal Policy, Climate Change,...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

Even the most optimistic analyses accept that many low-income countries (LICs) will remain low income for some time to come. Consequently, when assessing the policy options available to LICs it is important to take a long term view. In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Aid, Fiscal Policy, Climate...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

The civil service is the backbone of the state, and can either support or undermine a country’s entire system of governance. Donor’s recognize this important fact and have often tried to promote civil service reform in the countries they are providing aid to. However these attempts...

Research Brief
– Budget Support, Aid on Delivery or Project Aid?
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

One persistent concern raised during discussions of whether aid effectively promotes the goals of donors is fungibility, that is; the possibility that aid is used in ways not intended by donors when disbursing the funds. It could be used to lower taxes, to fund projects in a different sector, or...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

EU aid is complicated both by its close relationship to the EU’s foreign policy in general, and by the question of what Europe should do as a community and what should be done by individual member states. In the WIDER Working Paper ‘EU Aid: What Works and Why?’ Poul Nielson aims...

Research Brief
– The Role of Politics
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2013 - Helsinki, Finland

In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Vertical Decentralization and Urban Service Delivery in South Africa: Does Politics Matter?’ Robert Cameron looks at the ways in which politics affects decentralization and service delivery in South Africa. To do this he looks at Cape Town, which is...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2012 - Helsinki, Finland

Foreign aid has been slow to react to the challenge of urbanization, but must do so if it is to be an effective force going forward. In the WIDER Working Paper ‘Improving Donor Support for Urban Poverty Reduction: A focus on South Asia’ Nicola Banks argues that if a donor’s...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2012 - Helsinki, Finland

In the WIDER Working Paper 'Aid and the Fiscal and Monetary Responses to Dutch Disease' Alan Roe looks at the ways in which aid-induced, and mineral export-induced Dutch Disease (DD) are similar, and the ways in which they differ. He argues that many countries will experience both kinds...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2012 - Helsinki, Finland

Various studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between urban population levels and gross national income. As such the growth of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa may have a positive impact on the region’s economic development. However, this growth also presents a...

Research Brief
UNU -WIDER - UNU-WIDER, 2012 - Helsinki, Finland

MINUSTAH distributes food supplies for flood victims © UN Photo/Logan Abassi A common theme in the literature on aid effectiveness is that the character of the relationship between donors and recipients is a crucial determinant of how effective the provided aid is. One important...

Displaying 192 of 256 results.