Working Paper
Economic complexity and structural transformation: the case of Mozambique

Mozambique is among the world’s least complex economies. By systematically accounting for both supply- and demand-side factors, we identify new products and sectors that can help to diversify and upgrade its economy.

In a supply-side analysis, we use network methods from the literature on economic complexity to identify a set of target products that are complex, require productive capabilities useful in the export of other products, and are close to Mozambique’s existing productive structure. In a demand-side analysis, we use gravity models to predict the export potential of target products and markets given product-specific trade resistance and geographically dispersed demand.

The broad sectoral focus of Mozambique’s industrial policy is largely consistent with structural transformation and export promotion. The current prioritization of agriculture, agro-industry, and metals is especially important, while there are unexploited opportunities in machinery, vehicles, and transport equipment. We find some potential for Mozambique to export target products to neighbouring countries.