Journal Special Issue
Women’s Work

Routes to social and economic empowerment

In recent decades, trends in female labour force participation rates have been very heterogeneous across developing countries, despite widespread economic growth, fertility decline, and narrowing gender gaps in education.

However, globally, gender gaps in wages and labour force participation are persistent regardless of specific country context. Women often occupy the worst-paid jobs with the least protection, while gender-related social norms often hinder women’s access to better opportunities.

How do the processes of economic development and social change affect women’s labour market outcomes? What forces can bring about opportunities for women’s work that truly enhance their economic empowerment?